Six Mistakes to Avoid When Planting Garlic & Shallots

Here are the keys to surrounding yourself with beauty and abundance.

Garlic and shallots are among the easiest and most rewarding crops to grow, though harvesting

gorgeously massive, long-storing bulbs not a cakewalk. I’ve grown garlic here in the Finger Lakes for over nearly three decades and here are six mistakes I’ve made. In sharing them, I hope to save you time, money and heartache!

Choosing the Best Garlic & Shallots to Plant

As most of us learn the hard way, what you reap is what you sow. Considering how long your garlic and shallots are in the ground and how much time you’ll invest in weeding and feeding them, it’s worth the extra dollars sowing the best stock possible. You’ll reap that much more when you harvest.

Biggest Mistake: Planting anything but the biggest and healthiest organic garlic and shallot bulbs you can find.

Why? There is a direct relationship between the size of bulbs and cloves you plant the size of the bulbs and cloves you’ll harvest. It’s not often true, but in the case of garlic and shallot ‘seed stock,’ bigger truly is better, as long as they’re still healthy and especially if they’re organic.

Easy Solution: Don’t skimp! Ask your local organic growers if they have any seed stock they’ll be willing to sell you. We grow tens of thousands of gorgeous organic seed-stock bulbs of both garlic and shallots of many different varieties, all well-adapted to our short seasons. You’ll find them at


When to Plant Garlic & Shallots

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It’s best to err on the side of planting late, rather than too early. Courtesy of Fruition Seeds.

Garlic is planted in fall, allowing the cold to divide each clove into the bulb to come. Plant between Halloween and Thanksgiving for the healthiest garlic growth. Your goal is for each clove to establish its root system while growing as little shoot as possible.

Biggest Mistake: Planting too early.

Why? Garlic establishes it’s root system before sending up a green shoot. Planted too early, the green shoot can rise several inches, acting as a straw over the winter to draw water from the clove, effectively desiccating the clove and potentially killing it.

Easy Solution: Plant between Halloween and Thanksgiving.

Preparing Soil for Garlic & Shallots

We till the soil for our garlic bed as close to planting as possible, which can be tricky in the cool, wet soils of autumn. Before we work the soil, we add compost as well as Fruition’s organic granular fertilizer, acting as slow-release full-spectrum nutrition for the soil as well as the crop. It’s a blend of vegetable- as well as animal-sourced minerals and humic acid to feed your soil as well as your garlic throughout the season.

Biggest Mistake: Not enough fertility added or too much nitrogen added.

Why? Garlic is a ‘heavy feeder,’ so it will not grow large if nutrients are lacking. If its

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Plant your garlic with at least six inches between cloves. We plant on a staggered grid, three rows per bed. Courtesy of Fruition Seeds.

fertility is too nitrogen-rich, however, garlic will focus on vegetative growth, resulting in large leaves above small bulbs. Excess nitrogen also decreases storage life.

Easy Solution: Add rich, well-balanced compost as you prepare your soil, including organic slow-release fertilizer, if you can.

Common Mistake: Planting cloves upside down.

Why? Garlic will only grow roots and shoots from specific places in its clove. When planted upside down, the shoot will go down and force it’s way to the sky despite, making way more work for your garlic to thrive. This also makes it more challenging to harvest, cure and store your garlic.

Easy Solution: watch our tutorial and plant tip up!

Optimum Garlic & Shallot Spacing

Garlic is ideally planted with six inches between cloves, both in and between rows. We give a little more space, sowing with eight-inch centers, because we want to limit competition between plants both above and below the ground.

Common Mistake: Planting too close.

Why? Too close, garlic plants will compete with each other, to their detriment. Their roots compete for the same, finite nutrients. Leaves overlap, competing for sunlight.

Easy Solution: Bring a yardstick or some other measurement tool to the garden, helping keep you on-point, not too close or too far 🙂

How Deep to Plant Garlic & Shallots

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Plant your garlic with at least six inches between cloves. We plant on a staggered grid, three rows per bed. Courtesy of Fruition Seeds.

Planting depth makes all the difference. At a minimum, sow each clove three inches deep and then be sure to spread six inches of mulch or more. If you’re not planning to mulch, sow at least five inches deep.

Common Mistake: Not planting deep enough.

Why? Planted in fall and not growing rapidly until spring, garlic experiences the most dramatic freeze-thaw frost heaving of the season, bringing each clove to the surface if they’re not deep enough. Garlic will tolerate impressively cold temperatures but quickly succumbs to desiccating winter winds at the soils’ surface.

Easy Solution: Work soil well, so it’s easy to plant as deep as you need.

Garlic & Shallots: To mulch or not to mulch?

Until recently, I’ve always planted garlic and immediately spread six inches (at least) of straw or shredded leaf mulch to cover. These last few years we’ve been experimenting with other techniques, which have a lot of merit. My favorite mulches are straw, grass clippings, deciduous leaves sent through a chipper/shredder and, believe it or not, moldy hay.

Common Mistake: Not mulching if you don’t always weed thoroughly or on-time. Mulching too little when you do mulch, resulting in more work and more weeds.

Why? Garlic is only an easy crop if you manage it more or less perfectly. It can easily become weedy, whether you mulch or not. The trick with mulch: be sure you’re adding a lot, knowing it will decompose and condense, and be prepared to hand-weed a bit and add several inches more mulch once and often twice in spring.

Easy Solution: Spread six inches of mulch or more as soon as you sow, spreading more in spring as needed.

Friends, I’m delighted you’re planting garlic this season!

Planting garlic is one of the final moments in the garden we enjoy each season, a radical act of faith that even as one season ends, another begins. Garlic is a living link between seasons, between generations. As are you.

Find more insight on regional, organic growing on Fruition’s blog, seasonal webinars, YouTube channel, online courses, social media and Flourish Garden Club.

Join Fruition’s free half-hour webinar, Growing Gorgeous Organic Garlic! It’s Thursday, September 26th at 7 pm, register at Even if you can’t join us live or the date has passed, send me an email ( and I’ll send you a link! We love SFQ and we love you 😊

Avatar of Petra Page-Mann

Petra Page-Mann

Growing up in her father’s garden in the Finger Lakes of New York, Petra believes each seed and each of us is in the world to change the world. In 2012 she founded Fruition Seeds to share the seeds, knowledge and inspiration gardeners need to be more successful in the Northeast.  Don’t hesitate to strike up a conversation by contacting her at