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Compost Power!

Is it really possible to extract heat from compost to warm your barn, greenhouse or home?  A grassroots research network is finding out.

Mound construction starts by preparing a foundation of wood chips. Then layers of compost, roughly 6″ – 18″ thick, are spread over the foundation.

Any farmer is well aware that a large heap of fresh manure, livestock bedding and other organic farm residuals will generate substantial heat for several weeks or months. What is less widely known – and what this article intends to introduce to readers – are the methods for capturing this heat for use on the farm while simultaneously producing high quality organic soil amendment. In fact, a growing number of farm businesses in the Northeast are already generating usable heat from farmstead compostable material! To build upon this progress, Compost Power, a small network of researchers, farmers, engineers and do-it-yourself enthusiasts has been investigating and experimenting with small farm and homestead-scale systems for extracting useful heat from compost. In the following article, I will present some results of our efforts thus far, focusing on those of interest and relevance to farmers at any scale as well as sustainable agriculture and renewable energy enthusiasts.

A layer of coiled rigid black plastic water pipe is placed in between the layers of compost.The cinder blocks (2nd and 3rd photos in sequence) are removed when another layer of compost is piled on, so as to keep the coils in concentric loops and avoid tangling.

Before we dig in too deeply, you may be wondering: Does compost really generate enough usable heat? Well, it turns out our ancestors and contemporaries have repeatedly found methods for utilizing the heat by-product of compost. Firstly, records from ancient China depict heat utilization from compost heaps approximately 2,000 years ago. In more recent history, around the turn of the 20th century, in pre-automobile Paris, farmers disposed of the city’s horse manure in composting “hot beds” which heated glasshouses for urban vegetable production [1]. This ancestral wisdom may have inspired post-industrial farmers to explore the value of compost heat capture in sustainable agriculture.

After several alternating layers of compost and water pipe are installed, the pipe ends are connected to the heat load (in this case a house’s radiant floor system).

A rather extraordinary example of compost heat utilization is that of the French farmer and forester Jean Pain, who, through the 1960s and ‘70s, experimented with composting methods on his farm in southern France. In his book [2], Pain describes how he and a crew harvested fire-prone brushwood from his farm to create composting mounds of brushwood. These so-called “Pain mounds” were as large as 100 yards and produced enough thermal energy to heat a batch biodigester and provide the hot potable water needs of the farmstead. In his book, Pain describes equipment he used to capture and utilize the heat, biogas and fertilizer by-products of this integrated renewable energy system. I should note that while compost heat extraction and biodigester technologies have been independently shown to be technically and commercially viable, there is no record of any replication of Jean Pain’s combination of these technologies into a successful enterprise.

Finally, the mound is “capped” with additional compost to insulate the heat capture system and increase the active composting volume.

Closer to home here in the Northeast, there are a few examples of farm- and commercial-scale compost heat extraction. In the 1980s, at the New Alchemy Institute on Cape Cod, MA, Bruce Fulford and a team of applied researchers evaluated the concept of compost-heated greenhouses for season extension and carbon dioxide enrichment in a commercial farm setting [3]. Since 2005, in Franklin County Vermont, Diamond Hill Custom Heifers (DHCH) has been composting approximately 800 tons per year of heifer manure, bedding materials and local biomass to heat potable water and radiant flooring in its farm facilities [4]. Further north, in New Brunswick, Canada, the Greater Moncton Sewerage Commission (GMSC) has pilot-tested a system to extract heat from outdoor sewage-sludge based compost windrows [5]. Finally, since it’s founding in 2010, the Compost Power team has actively supported the construction or operation more than ten farm and homestead-scale compost heat extraction systems, mainly in Vermont and bordering areas [6].

So far, I have glazed over the exact methods and technologies for extracting heat from compost. All compost heat extraction technologies are based on either air-based and water-based (hydronic) heat capture methods. The best way to explain these two methods is through specific examples of their respective application. Air-based heat extraction is exemplified in Diamond Hill Custom Heifers’ system, which employs Agrilab’s proprietary IsoBar technology [7]. In the DHCH system air is pulled down through active compost piles (an arrangement referred to as “negative aeration composting”) by blowers, which then force the resulting compost-heated hot vapor flow through ductwork and over the IsoBar array. The IsoBars are actually thermosiphon tubes, which rapidly transfer heat from the hot vapors within the ductwork to potable water in an insulated bulk tank with no direct energy input.

By contrast, Jean Pain, the Greater Moncton Sewerage Commission and Compost Power have all employed hydronic heat capture methods. In the hydronic method, a network of pipes in embedded under, around or directly within an active compost pile. Water or glycol/water (antifreeze) solution is pumped through these pipes, which heats the fluid. The hot fluid is then pumped to a suitable heat load device, such as a radiant flooring slab, fluid-to-air radiator, or flat-plate heat exchanger. The compost-embedded pipe network and heat load device are thus connected in a heat exchange loop with associated expansion tank and pump.

Now let’s get to some more specific detail regarding the energy-generating potential of compost. A heat capture rate of 1,000 BTU per hour per ton of active compost is the maximum reported from the compost heat extraction processes we’ve investigated. Such a rate has been recorded to last up to 18 months [2]. However, based on my own observations of this technology and consultation with experts in this field, a more realistic estimation for the heat generation potential of active compost is 1,000 BTU/hr/ton for no longer than 6 months. The heat generation rate and longevity are critical variables in determining the viability of heat extraction technology. As such, the Compost Power network is collaborating with experts in the composting community to develop low-cost methods for confidently estimating the heat generation potential of a given compost recipe. Such a method would allow for more rapid and realistic assessment of the viability of compost heat extraction methods.

I’d like to close my discussion with a few key design considerations for farm-based compost heat extraction systems. It is important that you have a keen understanding of the composting process before embarking on any serious consideration of compost heat capture technology. A seasoned composter will know that critical parameters involved in a proper composting process include the C:N ratio, moisture content, the relative biodegradability, porosity of the compost recipe as well as the geometry and physical design of the active composting mass (pile, mound, windrow, bunker, etc). It’s also important to utilize the heat generation to the fullest extent possible. In a recent feasibility study, a design team including myself, determined that heat extraction technology can only be economically attractive for a small-scale farm if the design matches the farm’s heating and nutrient application needs such that substantial energy and fertility costs are offset. While the calculation is sensitive to some variation, I believe this situation is only possible if compost heat is utilized for at least six months out of the year. And, in order to achieve such a level of utilization, the system may need to incorporate thermal storage mechanisms (i.e. insulated bulk storage tanks) to allow for “banking” of captured heat for short periods of time (like when the sun is out for a greenhouse heating application). This, of course, will result in additional capital costs and operational complexity.

By now, current and aspiring farm-scale composters reading this may be considering how to incorporate compost heat extraction technology into their operation. A good place to start is to estimate how much (approximate volume in yards) compostable material your farm generates, what may be locally available and key characteristics (production rate in tons/month, C/N ratio, moisture content, particle size, etc) of each material. Keep in mind that, oftentimes, composters at any scale are limited by the amount of carbon source they can obtain. Next, consider your seasonal heating needs. Do you have a baseload or regular demand for hot water at 120 F – 140 F? Using an estimate of 1000 BTU/ton/hr of active compost, do any of your heat loads match your compostable material generation rate? You may even start getting a little ahead of yourself like me and consider what new farm enterprise this plentiful heat source might power to improve your farm operation while reducing its impact on the environment. If you find yourself here, or stuck any point in between, be sure to look up Compost Power!

Sam Gorton is a part-time PhD student at the University of Vermont and works as a process engineer involved in the research and development of clean technology. He can be reached at 518-496-4252., at gortonsm@gmail.com or on Facebook and LinkedIn.

Sidebar:
References:
1. Aquatias, P. (1913). Intensive Culture of Vegetables (French System). L Upcott Gill: London, UK.
2. Pain, J. & Pain, I. (1972). Another Kind of Garden: The Methods of Jean Pain. Domaine Les Templiers: Villecroze, France.
3. Fulford, B. (1986). The Composting Greenhouse at New Alchemy Institute: A Report on Two Years of Operation and Monitoring, March 1984 – January 1986. New Alchemy Institute Research Report No.3.
4. Tucker, M.F. (2006). Extracting Thermal Energy from Composting. BioCycle, Vol. 47, No. 8, p. 38.
5. Allain, Conrad (2007). Energy Recovery at Biosolids Composting Facility. BioCycle, Vol. 48, No. 10, p. 50.
6. Compost Power
7. Agrilab

Additional composting resources:
Highfields Center for Composting
Rynck, R. (1992). On-Farm Composting Handbook. Northeast Regional Agricultural Engineering Service: Ithaca, NY, USA.

Sam Gorton

Sam Gorton is a part-time PhD student at the University of Vermont and works as a process engineer involved in the research and development of clean technology. He can be reached at 518-496-4252., at gortonsm@gmail.com or on Facebook and LinkedIn.

77 Comments

  1. Julian Wormald on December 14, 2012 at 7:58 am

    Hello Sam,
    I’ve just found this link after doing quite a bit of mainly frustrating internet based research on smaller scale composting to heat greenhouses, and have now built my prototype set up, and am generating temperature data. I’m an ex Cambridge (UK) veterinary surgeon who is fascinated by this subject and its potential to produce valuable usable heating energy, with low capital set up, and running costs, and using widely available raw materials. The fact that I’m in the UK may mean my set up is of no interest, or too small, but I reckon it should be scaleable. If you’re interested, you can follow the link to my last 3 blog posts where some of my design and early temperature/other findings are mentioned. If there’s any way I could be included with any Cornell follow up information, I’d be very grateful,
    Best wishes and Happy Christmas,
    Julian Wormald, M.A. Vet.M.B.
    https://thegardenimpressionists.wordpress.com

  2. Sam Gorton on January 29, 2013 at 11:47 am

    Hi Julian,
    Thanks for sharing your project and enthusiasm! Your results are very encouraging. We have not used leaf mould as a carbon source, but I’m glad it worked for you. It seems that you have supplemented with animal bedding and manure, as well as human urine. The bedding helps helps provide structure to the compost pile, while the manure adds a balanced nitrogen/carbon source and beneficial microbes. The urine obviously adds concentrated nitrogen. I’m curious how the compost turned out and if you used any supplementary heat in the greenhouse. Do keep in touch, you can reach me at the email address above – anytime.
    Best wishes, Sam

  3. Julian Wormald on February 3, 2013 at 4:43 am

    Hello Sam,
    Thanks for the reply. As of 2/2/2013 I’m still getting heat from the heap – though it has diminished over the last 3 weeks. I’m putting regular monthly updates and thoughts on my blog, with ideas for improvement next year. I’ve used no additional heating apart from the heat from a 100 watt flourescent tube SAD light which runs for a few daytime hours to counter the Welsh winter gloom, and a heat store path, which on rare sunny days, is fed from a 20 watt fan in the greenhouse apex. So far, its kept the ‘inner zone’ ( a polycarbonate insulated lower growing area) above 3 degrees C, in spite of touching minus 17 degrees C at the greenhouse ridge on one night. I also use quite a lot of water filled 2 litre bottles between inner zone and greenhouse wall to act as an additional buffer when it gets really cold, my theory being that the latent heat of fusion as the water freezes might protect the inner zone in very severe weather. So far, my ‘Canaries in the mine’ – 2 Lemon bushes, are looking pretty healthy. Will let you know what the compost looks like, when it’s finished for the season, and spring is here!
    BW
    Julian
    https://thegardenimpressionists.wordpress.com/

  4. Jared jeanotte on June 6, 2013 at 11:15 am

    Just a side note I have read that the earlyest egg Incubators were Heated by compost In China.

  5. Sam Gorton on June 24, 2013 at 4:10 pm

    Thanks for your comment Jared – do you happen to recall the reference for compost heat utilization in China? I have only heard anectodotally that the Chinese were using compost heat, nothing formally written.

  6. Julian Wormald on June 30, 2013 at 4:54 pm

    Hello Sam,
    I promised a final update on my system. I’ve just posted the last of 8 posts on my compost bed set up for our small greenhouse. The ‘compost’ itself has turned out to be really useful – courgettes/tomatoes have root systems much better than those grown previously in ordinary garden soil( the compost has a very open structure), and the top growth of the tomatoes is dramatically ahead of anything I’ve managed before – the heap is trickling on in a low key/half empty fashion but may still be useful in ironing out greenhouse temperature variations as we head past mid summer. I include images of the first stages of a near neighbour’s bigger version with even better insulation which he’s setting up for this autumn.
    Best wishes
    Julian
    https://thegardenimpressionists.wordpress.com/2013/06/23/entomological-explosion-growing-tomatoes-organically-in-a-garden-greenhouse-heating-a-greenhouse-with-an-external-compost-bed-part-8-and-egg-on-your-face/

    • john jørgensen on January 7, 2022 at 7:40 am

      Thanks to all for this info, realy nice! I think about a compact nice looking system for my village garden. Would love to see links for the first seven posts, nr 8 being mentioned in your post… BW John in Denmark

  7. Allen Schnack on July 12, 2013 at 12:05 pm

    As I plan the pile I’ll build this fall, the question I’m currently pondering is:
    Does the entire pile heat up to a consist temperature throughout, or does it compost the same way that a similar pile of dry wood chips would burn i.e. from the outside inward?
    Has anyone ever monitored the temperatures throughout the pile throughout its “life”?

  8. Siva on August 12, 2013 at 11:54 am

    Its very interesting to read notes. I am involved with running a cricket and sports club. I would like to follow your lines in order to develop a sustainable project in recycling and composting.
    If you can help me in the way of achieving the same would be much appreciated.
    Kind regards,
    Siva

  9. Brian on October 28, 2013 at 2:59 pm

    Hi, I find this very interesting. I was just reading about the “Biomeiler” (Bio- is German for organic and Meiler is German for power plant) thermal power source that has been “online” in Austria for about 4 years and so I decided to look if there was anything similar to this going on in my old home country. Someone in our town here in Germany is using one of these home-made power sources to heat the water in their house and it works fine. The Austrian website is: http://www.biomeiler.at/ but I don’t think they have an English version and it looks like they don’t update it very often. It’s nice to see that someone is developing something like the German/Austrian version in the States. Great work!

  10. Mian Maqbool Hussain on January 11, 2015 at 3:52 am

    It’s a great effort; i appreciate your zeal to recovery metabolic heat of bacteria during composting; keep it up (Y)

  11. Ellie on December 8, 2016 at 11:49 am

    Hi!
    This article is a bit old, but I’m hoping someone is still monitoring the comments! I’m wondering if anyone has ever used compost heat in a much smaller scale, to keep a livestock tank from freezing in the winter. Could anyone offer some guidance or thoughts on how to go about constructing a compost “insulator” to surround a small (50-60 gallon) water trough? I would appreciate any help! Thank you!

  12. CJ Milne on January 16, 2017 at 3:33 am

    Has anyone ever tried to run the hot water from a compost over a thermogenerator device (peltier) and see how electricity can be output? The temperatures are not high enough for a steam generator, but doing some research I’ve seen these devices work based on temperature differential. If the water is 40 celsius, and the outside air is -10, that would seem like a good differential to work with.

  13. Ellie on February 6, 2017 at 11:54 am

    Thanks Tara! I just may do that.

  14. Ian Hunter on February 13, 2017 at 3:12 pm

    Hi, What a great initiative! It’s always fun to see projects like this being taken on by the community or universities. The concept is very similar to a ground source heat system with underfloor heating but with out the electrical costs. Good luck with the project look forward to hearing how things progress.

  15. Mian Maqbool Hussain on February 14, 2017 at 12:19 pm

    Waste composition; characterisation; designing of microbial concoction; providing best food to microbes and environmental conditions define rate; fate and quality of the compost

  16. Mian Maqbool Hussain on February 14, 2017 at 1:25 pm

    Waste composition analysis and characterisation play important role in designing microbial inoculant; food for microbes and environmental conditions. Biodegradation prerequisites are C:N ration; energy balance of materials; nutrient balance of materials; pH profile of the materials etc. Biodegradation is of 3 type;
    1- Anaerobic 100% (fermentation);
    2- Semi Aerobic ~50% of aerobicity and
    3-Aerobic 100% (composting).
    If this step is perfom successfully then the rate; fate and quality can be defined successfully.It economically viable to recycle moisture and recover heat during the active process of composting.
    A well stabilised compost is not mere an “organic matter” it has OM; NPK; humic acid; micronutrients; however it is possible to enrich the compost to make it a complete biofertilizer or organically enriched to make and organic fertilizer.

  17. Mian Maqbool Hussain on February 14, 2017 at 1:56 pm

    Heat generated during active composting regime may successfully be recovered through bottom piping for positive aeration; the process of heat is sort of bio-firing in the composting materials; when blowing positive air; biological heat is increased then periodically run the blower negatively to recovery hot (50-70 deg. centigrade) air to the system required to be heated. Recovered heat can’t produce steam but to heat water; floor or room; in case of room we would need an organic filter to purify the hot air

  18. Fred Neal Landry on July 9, 2017 at 12:05 am

    I enjoyed the article and comments. The focus on compost energy is a great idea1 – I am going to try it for use in a greenhouse.

  19. Shraga on January 17, 2018 at 6:17 pm

    I live on a small equestrian farm in southern Ontario Canada (Stouffville).
    One of our biggest costs is electricity especially in the winter where we have to heat the water in the paddocks for the horses.
    In early Jan 2018 temperatures of -30 deg Cel were encountered at our farm
    One horse produces approximately 9 metric tonnes of manure. Combine that with the wood shavings and hay, one would have significantly more.
    We have about 20 horses.
    I am trying to create heating stations in each of the paddocks, where a pile of composting manure would heat the water trough in each paddock.
    The composting process is about 4.5 months where a temperature of about 70 deg Cel is generated by the composting process.
    I am convinced that there must be a way to harness this energy.
    Does anybody have any experience or suggestions on this topic?

  20. George Guenther on September 21, 2018 at 8:06 am

    Shraga
    I am just starting into the compost heating thing, but it seems to me the easiest way to keep the water above freezing is to build the troughs in to the pile.
    Next easiest would be to run the hot water, collected from the pile, through the troughs and (Just pump the water from the trough, through the pile and back to the trough. I ran across a link of a guy in the snow having a hot shower from water pumped through his compost pile and have seen figures that read 140F at a rate of 1 gallon a miniut output(with a big enough pile of compost.
    I am planning on making a pile this winter and seeing if I can keep the water warm in my cow water troughs. Here is articalhttps://waldenlabs.com/compost-water-heaters-from-jean-pain/

    • Kelsie Raucher on October 4, 2018 at 10:36 am

      Hi George, Thank you for the comment. Let us know if this system works for you!

  21. lynne morgan on December 13, 2018 at 7:30 am

    This is great information. Would you like to see the report I produced for the Welsh Office where I tested 8 different local composting materials over a winter period in Wales. Got some great graphs and technique.

    • Kelsie Raucher on April 2, 2020 at 12:50 pm

      Hi Lynne,

      I’d recommend reaching out directly to the author of this article, Sam. He can be reached at 518-496-4252., at gortonsm@gmail.com or on Facebook and LinkedIn.

  22. Jason Thompson on November 29, 2020 at 12:42 am

    I have a mechanized plan…it involves a used dump truck, spikes with water running through the inside and sensors…

  23. Kristine on August 9, 2021 at 3:19 am

    This is such an interesting read about composting. I recently just embarked into composting through the Bokashi Composting here https://sdmicrobeworks.com/blogs/news/bokashi-composting-5-tips-to-help-you-start-your-home-composting-program So far, it’s working well for me.

  24. Jess on August 17, 2021 at 11:33 pm

    What if the coolant water was used to heat the hot cylinder of an Alpha Stirling Engine? If the coolant loop was connected to a water jacket that surrounded the closed end of the cylinder with heated water, then connected back to the loop in the compost heap, the system would reach an equilibrium that would keep the hot cylinder of the Stirling Engine at a relatively constant temperature.

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    What if the coolant water was used to heat the hot cylinder of an Alpha Stirling Engine? If the coolant loop was connected to a water jacket that surrounded the closed end of the cylinder with heated water, then connected back to the loop in the compost heap, the system would reach an equilibrium that would keep the hot cylinder of the Stirling Engine at a relatively constant temperature.

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  32. nhommebimsua on December 11, 2021 at 6:40 am

    Heat generated during active composting regime may successfully be recovered through bottom piping for positive aeration; the process of heat is sort of bio-firing in the composting materials; when blowing positive air; biological heat is increased then periodically run the blower negatively to recovery hot (50-70 deg. centigrade) air to the system required to be heated. Recovered heat can’t produce steam but to heat water; floor or room; in case of room we would need an organic filter to purify the hot air

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  34. vninvestment on December 15, 2021 at 12:03 am

    I enjoyed the article and comments. The focus on compost energy is a great idea1 – I am going to try it for use in a greenhouse.

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  36. I have a mechanized plan…it involves a used dump truck, spikes with water running through the inside and sensors

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  53. có 10 tỷ nên làm gì on April 25, 2022 at 4:54 am

    Có 10 tỷ đầu tư gì an toàn, sinh lời ổn định? Gửi tiết kiệm ngân hàng, đầu tư chứng khoán hay bất động sản? Mỗi hình thức sẽ có những ưu, nhược điểm riêng và lợi nhuận cao cũng đi kèm với rủi ro lớn. Do đó bạn phải cân nhắc kỹ trước khi lựa chọn.

  54. có 10 tỷ nên đầu tư gì on April 25, 2022 at 4:54 am

    Có 10 tỷ đầu tư gì an toàn, sinh lời ổn định? Gửi tiết kiệm ngân hàng, đầu tư chứng khoán hay bất động sản? Mỗi hình thức sẽ có những ưu, nhược điểm riêng và lợi nhuận cao cũng đi kèm với rủi ro lớn. Do đó bạn phải cân nhắc kỹ trước khi lựa chọn.

  55. nếu có 10 tỷ bạn sẽ kinh doanh gì on April 25, 2022 at 4:55 am

    Có 10 tỷ đầu tư gì an toàn, sinh lời ổn định? Gửi tiết kiệm ngân hàng, đầu tư chứng khoán hay bất động sản? Mỗi hình thức sẽ có những ưu, nhược điểm riêng và lợi nhuận cao cũng đi kèm với rủi ro lớn. Do đó bạn phải cân nhắc kỹ trước khi lựa chọn.

  56. có 5 tỷ nên làm gì on April 25, 2022 at 4:57 am

    Dù là bởi được thừa kế, hay sau nhiều năm làm việc vất vả; bạn tích cóp được số tiền 5 tỷ đồng và muốn dùng nó để đầu tư làm giàu. Với 5 tỷ trong tay, bạn có thể bắt đầu kế hoạch kinh doanh trong nhiều lĩnh vực. Bài viết dưới đây sẽ chia sẻ đến bạn 5 ý tưởng có 5 tỷ nên đầu tư gì để “tiền đẻ ra tiền”; đang được nhiều người quan tâm hiện nay. Cùng tham khảo và lựa chọn cho mình những ý tưởng kinh doanh phù hợp nhé.

  57. có 300tr nên kinh doanh gì on April 25, 2022 at 4:57 am

    Bạn đang ở ngưỡng 25 – 30 tuổi và sau một khoảng thời gian làm lụng, bạn tích góp được một số tiền đâu đó 300 – 400 triệu. Làm thế nào để với số tiền đó bạn có thể mua nhà lúc 35 tuổi? Việc tiếp tục gửi tiết kiệm là không khả quan, vậy có 300tr nên kinh doanh gì?

  58. nên mua nhà khi có bao nhiêu tiền on April 25, 2022 at 4:58 am

    Có bao nhiêu tiền thì nên mua nhà? Mùa nhà hay mua chung cư? Nên mua nhà trong thời điểm này hay không. Tất tần tật câu hỏi được đề ra khi một cá nhân nào đó có ý định mua nhà. Bởi lẽ, tiền và địa lý ngôi nhà là hai yếu tố quyết định chủ chốt nhất. Thế nên có bao nhiêu tiền thì nên mua nhà? Liệu có phương án tài chính nào để giúp bạn có thêm tiền để mua nhà? Đừng lo ! Bài viết dưới đây của batdongsanviet247 sẽ giúp bạn giải đáp những thắc mắc ấy.

  59. giá đất trong tương lai on April 25, 2022 at 4:58 am

    Có bao nhiêu tiền thì nên mua nhà? Mùa nhà hay mua chung cư? Nên mua nhà trong thời điểm này hay không. Tất tần tật câu hỏi được đề ra khi một cá nhân nào đó có ý định mua nhà. Bởi lẽ, tiền và địa lý ngôi nhà là hai yếu tố quyết định chủ chốt nhất. Thế nên có bao nhiêu tiền thì nên mua nhà? Liệu có phương án tài chính nào để giúp bạn có thêm tiền để mua nhà? Đừng lo ! Bài viết dưới đây của batdongsanviet247 sẽ giúp bạn giải đáp những thắc mắc ấy.

  60. giá đất trồng cây lâu năm 2022 on April 25, 2022 at 4:59 am

    Bạn muốn biết giá đất trồng cây lâu năm hiện nay được quy định như thế nào? Làm sao để định giá đất chính xác nhất? Và hướng giải quyết đền bù ra sao? Tất cả sẽ được giải đáp thông qua kỳ 4 của chuỗi Series Đất vàng ngay sau đây.

  61. giá đất nền hà nội giảm mạnh on April 25, 2022 at 4:59 am

    Những quy định về giãn cách đã mang đến những biến động xấu cho thị trường toàn cầu nói chung. Bức tranh ảm đạm của thị trường bất động sản phần nào cho chúng ta thấy rõ hơn. Đặc biệt là bảng giá đất ở Hà Nội năm 2022. Cụ thể, giá đất nền Hà Nội giảm mạnh theo thống kê cho thấy. Thị trường bất động sản Hà Nội có tỷ lệ hấp thụ trung bình chỉ đạt 29.6% trong quý III 2022. Đây là kết quả tệ nhất trong 5 năm qua. Vậy, đây có phải là cơ hội tốt để đầu tư hay là tín hiệu của những rủi ro trong tương lai. Bài viết dưới đây sẽ giúp bạn đánh giá rõ hơn về vấn đề trên.

  62. Xu hướng đầu tư 2022 on April 25, 2022 at 5:00 am

    Bối cảnh sau đại dịch COVID-19 đã và đang tạo ra nhiều xu hướng và cơ hội đầu tư – kinh doanh mới trên toàn cầu cũng như ở Việt Nam. Tận dụng tốt và nắm bắt được xu hướng đầu tư 2021 sẽ giúp nhà đầu tư có những bước đi đúng đắn trong việc đầu tư của mình trong năm 2021 này.

  63. nhà đất đà nẵng giảm giá mạnh on April 25, 2022 at 5:00 am

    Sau “cú sốc” vỡ bong bóng cách đây 2 năm; đặc biệt là sau ảnh hưởng tiêu cực của đại dịch Covid-19 khiến nhà đất Đà Nẵng giảm giá mạnh 2022 dịp đầu năm xuống mức thấp kỷ lục.

  64. Thị trường nhà đất on April 25, 2022 at 5:00 am

    Thị trường nhà đất hiện nay ở thành phố Hồ Chí Minh là một trong những thị trường bất động sản tiềm năng cao và thu hút đầu tư nhất tại khu vực. Đặc biệt là những quận trung tâm luôn được xem là các vị trí đắc địa để đầu tư; kinh doanh. Tình hình giao dịch ở đây luôn được cập nhật nhanh nhất trong vùng nhưng cung vẫn không thể đủ cầu. Hãy xem thị trường nhà đất TPHCM trong năm nay sẽ chuyển biến như thế nào nhé.

  65. cách đầu tư đất khôn ngoan on April 25, 2022 at 5:01 am

    Trong lĩnh vực bất động sản, có rất nhiều bí quyết kinh doanh. Với những người mới vào nghề, câu hỏi thường hay gặp sẽ là “Cách đầu tư bđs khôn ngoan mang lại lợi nhuận cao?”. Trong quá trình va chạm và trải nghiệm thực tế, bạn sẽ nhận ra rằng, với mỗi loại hình bất động sản đặc thù thì sẽ có những bí quyết riêng. Nhưng chắc chắn 8 bí quyết này sẽ là những kiến thức cơ bản & cốt lõi nhất mà một người mới học kinh doanh bất động sản phải biết.

  66. đầu cơ bất động sản on April 25, 2022 at 5:02 am

    Theo Bộ Xây Dựng, giới đầu cơ đất đai vẫn hoạt động công khai; lợi dụng yếu tố xã hội như chuẩn bị quy hoạch đô thị, xây dựng hạ tầng, mở rộng đô thị… để đẩy giá lên cao thu lợi làm bất ổn thị trường. Vậy đầu cơ bất động sản là gì và nó tác động ra sao lên thị trường?

  67. tinnongthitruong on April 25, 2022 at 11:51 pm

    Nên mua trái phiếu hay gửi tiết kiệm  ? – Trái phiếu và gửi tiền tiết kiệm là 2 kênh đầu tư có thể đem lại lợi nhuận cho nhiều người. Tuy vậy, nhiều NĐT vẫn lưỡng lự không biết nên mua trái phiếu hay gửi tiết kiệm ngân hàng sẽ hiệu quả hơn. Dưới bài viết này Tin nóng thị trường  sẽ so sánh về 2 hình thức đầu tư này đồng thời chỉ ra những rủi khi mua trái phiếu ngân hàng là gì?
    https://tinnongthitruong.net/nen-mua-trai-phieu-hay-gui-tiet-kiem

  68. Đầu Tư Nhật Nam on April 27, 2022 at 12:10 am

    đầu tư gì năm 2022 để nhận lại lợi nhuận cao nhất?
    Nền kinh tế thị trường có tín hiệu phục sinh từ cuối năm 2021 và đã được kỳ vọng tăng trưởng mạnh trong năm 2022. Chính phủ nước nhà liên tục đẩy mạnh đầu tư công, tạo tiền đề tăng trưởng lâu dài… sẽ là những điều kiện thuận tiện cho chứng khoán nước ta trở nên mới mẻ và phát triển hơn trong năm 2022. Trong bối cảnh đó, chiến lược đầu tư phụ thuộc sự phục hồi của nền kinh tế thị trường cũng được rất nhiều chuyên gia lựa chọn đầu tư trong thời gian 2022

    >>>> Bạn đang quan tâm xu hướng đầu tư kinh doanh 2022, thao khảo nhanh tại đây: https://dautunhatnam.com/khoi-nghiep-voi-20-trieu/

  69. Vninvestment on April 27, 2022 at 3:24 am

    Hướng dẫn chơi chứng khoán trên điện thoại cực đơn giản dành cho người mới bắt đầu tìm hiểu và chưa có nhiều kiến thức kỹ năng chuyên môn ở lĩnh vực này. Chúng ta có thể dùng cách chơi chứng khoán trên điện thoại được không? Bạn đã biết hướng dẫn chơi chứng khoán trên điện thoại qua app HSC Trade? Có những app, phần mềm chứng khoán nào tốt nhất Việt Nam hiện nay? Bài viết này Vninvestment không chỉ hướng dẫn bạn cách sử dụng mà còn bật mí các app chứng khoán tốt nhất Việt Nam để tìm ra phần mềm chứng khoán nào tốt nhất uy tín chất lượng năm 2022.
    >>> Nếu bạn quan tâm, tìm hiểu ngay tại: https://www.vninvestment.vn/huong-dan-choi-chung-khoan-tren-dien-thoai/

  70. xomdautu on May 22, 2022 at 10:10 pm

    Cách kiếm tiền nhanh và hiệu quả cho người mới bắt đầu
    Không phải ai trong chúng ta cũng biết cách kiếm tiền nhanh và hiệu quả ngay từ khi mới bắt đầu.
    >>> If you QUAN TÂM, hãy tìm hiểu ngay tại: https://xomdautu.com/co-300-trieu-nen-dau-tu-gi/

  71. Đầu Tư Nhật Nam on June 6, 2022 at 3:31 am

    I enjoyed the article and comments. The focus on compost energy is a great idea1 – I am going to try it for use in a greenhouse.

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